Scientific Results

Theoretical background


The logic under the development of the following questionnaire Is based at on Canadian Model of Occupational Performance.  The model was first published in 1983, and updated in 1991, 1997 and 2002 (DNHW/CAOT, 1983;  CAOT 1991, 1997, 2002, 2007).  It makes explicit the interest of occupational therapists in both occupational engagement and occupational performance and emphasizes a person-centered approach. The questionnaire is determined by self-report, rather than by objective observation.  and Occupational performance is defined both in terms of an individual’s opportunity to perform certain occupations, and his or her satisfaction with that performance.

The Canadian model Picture 1 shows that occupational performance is the result of the interactions between the person (with Intellectual disability), the environment (the physical & social place and the cultural and institutional elements) , and the occupation (the leisure activity). The person is seen as possessing physical, affective, and cognitive components, central to which is the essential core of ‘being,’ the spiritual element.

Leisure includes the occupations performed by an individual when freed from the obligation to be productive (McColl, Law, Doubt, Pollock, & Stewart, 2003; McColl et al., 2014).  This includes quiet recreation, active recreation, and socialization

The under development questionnaire (PART 1) is based on Canadian Model of Occupational performance and the Canadian Measure of Occupational Performance   and is administered as a semi-structured interview and should take ??????  minutes to perform by an experienced  therapist or teacher.

Picture 1: The Canadian Model of Occupational Performnace  (CAOT, 2007).

Choose Leisure activities & Rating PERFORMANCE & SATISFACTION

The first step in the process is to interview the client about his/her leisure activities. It is essential that therapists use their skills in interviewing, probing for full responses, validating assumptions, and motivating respondents to obtain the most thorough and comprehensive assessment.

It is important that clients identify activities that they want to do, need to do, or are expected to do in daily life. Once the client has identified those that they need, want, or are expected to do, then they are asked if they have the opportunity to do those leisure activities or are satisfied with how they do them. The first enquiries, therefore, address the client’s perceived ‘needs’ and the second enquiries address ‘performance’ and ‘satisfaction’.


Once the specific activities have been identified, the client is asked to rate each activity in terms of its importance in his or her life. Importance is rated on a 4-point scale. The rating scales for PERFORMANCE, IMPORTANCE, , and SATISFACTION  Ask the client to choose up to five activities that seem most important. Therapists have found that the best way to proceed is by showing clients the five activities  that have been rated with the highest importance and asking if these are the most important issues for intervention. This allows the client an opportunity to confirm that those activities are the most important or to choose another activity of less importance if they wish to focus intervention on that. These identified activities form the basis of intervention.

PART 2: Quality of life scale

The Brunnsviken Brief Quality of life scale (BBQ) is a modern, validated self-rating scale for subjective quality of life, that is free to use for clinicians and researchers alike. There are no licensing costs and authors are encouraged to submit new translations into other languages. The BBQ was developed by researchers at Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University (two universities situated next to lake Brunnsviken) for use with both clinical and non-clinical samples, in both research and clinical practice. The BBQ is quick and easy to administer and score, taps overall self-experienced quality of life, and has been professionally translated into most major languages. In  the case of the development of the current quostainaire specific questions related to leisure activities and people with intellectual disabilities and can be examined in relation to Part 1 of the questionnaire.

Overall, the questionnaire will give the level of functioning to leisure activities based on personal views and how much this affects their quality of life.

It is important that we create a questionnaire that firstly gives insight into how participants currently spend their free time (and whether or not this is decided by them).  Then provides as many ideas/choices as to how they would like to spend their free time (noting the similarities and differences).  The final part is feedback as to how satisfied participants are with the activities as well as the importance of doing them.  All the while keeping the process as simple as possible and giving maximum access to participants and/or their families/carers.

The choices in the finished version will be images that can be clicked or dragged.

The three sections: 

  1. What do I currently do in my free time?
  2. What would I like to do in my free time?  (how satisfied I am AND the importance of doing it) Based on the relevant theory that explains the interaction between the person the environment and the opportunity to do what I like.
  3. Quality of life evaluation (The Brunnsviken Brief Quality of life scale (BBQ))

Our scale will have ‘thumbs up/down’ or emoticons instead of numbers:

🙂🙂     🙂     ☹     ☹☹

3 or 4 maximum scale with emoticons

We would like the finished app to have the possibility to upload or take a picture of other activities that the participant is interested in doing or record a soundbite of them saying what they would like to do.

What would I like to do in my free time clickable options: